The Arusha Manifesto.
Since the colonial era, wildlife conservation in Tanzania has been the prerogative of the government. Under this structure, the use of wildlife resources by local communities had always been restrictive, causing increased rural poverty and poaching. In recent years, the Tanzania National Parks Authority (TANAPA) has initiated corrective actions to involve the local community in conservation efforts, which is aimed at contribution to local economies by way of equitable benefits sharing.
“The survival of our wildlife is a matter of grave concern to all of us in Africa. These wild creatures amid the wild places they inhabit are not only important as a source of wonder and inspiration, but are an integral part of our natural resources and our future livelihood and well being. In accepting the trusteeship of our wildlife we solemnly declare that we will do everything in our power to make sure that our children’s grand-children will be able to enjoy this rich and precious inheritance.
The conservation of wildlife and wild places calls for specialist knowledge, trained manpower and money, and we look to other nations to co-operate with us in this important task – the success or failure of which not only affects the continent of Africa but the rest of the world as well.”
Julius K. Nyerere, Arusha Manifesto, 1961
President Nyerere’s philosophy to protect and cherish Tanzania’s spectacular wildlife as a prime national heritage is expressed in the high priority the Tanzanian government has given to conservation of natural resources.
In Tanzania there are three different safari circuits, and all circuit offer excellent wildlife viewing. The country contains some 20 percent of the species of Africa’s large mammal population, Zebras, giraffes, elephants, wildebeest, buffaloes, hippos, antelopes and gazelles are common animals.
Among all animals Tanzania has chosen the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) as its national animal. Standing an average of 20 feet tall, the giraffe is the tallest land mammal on earth. Giraffes are social animals. They travel in groups of 10 to 12 females with their young. The males travel separately.
The wildebeest great migration happens in October and November. During the migration, wildebeests travel across the Serengeti in huge herds. This migration includes more than 200,000 zebras and 300,000 Thomson’s gazelles.
Some of the best places to see Tanzanian wildlife on safari are Serengeti National Park, Selous Game Reserve, Tarangire National Park, and Mkomazi National Park.
In the wetlands areas, your safari adventure will include sightings of flamingoes, ducks, hippos, waterbucks, common warthogs, crocodiles, and sitatatungas or marshbucks.
Zanzibar Island is part of Tanzania, and the island has its own unique ecology. The coral reefs and mangrove forests are home to whales, dolphins, sea turtles, manta rays, colobus monkeys, dik-diks, Mozambique cobras, and Pemba flying foxes. Zanzibar has one national park and many protected marine areas.
Best Time for Wildlife Viewing.
The best time to view the wildlife is on the dry season (June-October). The Wet season (November-May) is often more beautiful and tourist numbers are lower. The best chance for seeing the wildebeest migration is between july to September. The parks in the Southern and Western circuit are less accessible in the long rains (March to May) and some lodges close in that period.
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